Nonmonotonic logics and reasoning biases catarina dutilh novaes illc and department of philosophy university of amsterdam. Especially default and common sense reasoning is of interest. Nonmonotonic reasoning allows various kinds of hypothetical reasoning. Reasoning biases, nonmonotonic logics, and belief revision. In common sense reasoning one often draws conclusions that have to be withdrawn when further information is obtained. Logical foundations of nonmonotonic reasoning springerlink. Non monotonic logics result from associating a standard logic with a preference relation on models. In this paper we discuss an approach to non monotonic reasoning which does allow the phase of knowledge acquisition to be accomplished in an incremental and modular way, but at the same time relies on a solid and widely acknowledged formal apparatus such as first order logic fol. Chapters 24 eschew discussion about the non monotonic nature of the knowledge representation and inference for the sake of simplicity. However, to model commonsense reasoning, it is necessary to be able to jump to plausible conclusions from the given knowledge. Nonmonotonic reasoning is a subfield of artificial intelligence trying to find more realistic formal models of reasoning than classical logic. Nonmonotonic logic wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
A logic for default reasoning 83 hat tweety is a penguin. If a proposition is deducible from a set of premises, this s. There are a variety of approaches to non monotonic reasoning falling. This non monotonicity is introduced in chapter 5, which discusses the relevant aspects of natural description, how this pertains to non monotonic logic, and specifically to defeasible reasoning. Incremental knowledge acquisition for nonmonotonic. Our main purpose is to abstract out and exhibit a modular and systematic method of representing non monotonic reasoning problems with our crsx seman. This is called default or nonmonotonic reasoning and cannot be.
Practical nonmonotonic reasoning guido governatori knowledge techniques week 2012 nicta members nicta partners au from imagination to impact 2. This paper describes the results of a research project to examine the application of nonmonotonic reasoning to the problem of component selection for plant design. This is called default or non monotonic reasoning and cannot be formalized directly in pure fol in general. Virtually every example in ai that calls upon such reasoning fits the following pattern. The objective behind the area is the use of logic for knowledge representation and reasoning.
A monotonic logic cannot handle various reasoning tasks such as reasoning by default facts may be known only because of lack of evidence of the contrary, abductive reasoning facts are only deduced as most likely explanations and some important approaches to reasoning about knowledge the ignorance of a fact must be retracted when the fact. Syntax and semantic rules should have a practical implementation. Anything can end before a clause is added, even after it is added. Declarativism if we made nml inference procedure based. We present answer set programming modulo theories aspmtqs, a novel approach and fully implemented prototype for nonmonotonic spatial reasoning. We shall also give hints on potential future directions and emphasize that more. This volume contains the papers that will be presented at the first international workshop on argumentation and non monotonic reasoning argnmr 2007 on may 14, 2007 in tempe, arizona, us. Nonmonotonic spatial reasoning with answer set programming modulo theories. Ai 89 conference, prague nonmonotonic reasoning and logic programming petr o jlrku inference methods in knowledgebased systems are presented which are used for inferencing from incom plete information or in systems that model actions, i. Circumscription a form of nonmonotonic reasoning was published in artificial intelligence in 1980. In non monotonic reasoning, we have a truth maintenance system it keeps track.
In a nonmonotonic reasoning system new information can be added which will cause the deletion or alteration of existing knowledge. Component selection is a decisionmaking process which, we suggest, can be made more efficient through automated knowledgebased support. In particular, it provides rigorous mechanisms for taking back conclusions that, in the presence of new information, turn out to be wrong and for deriving new, alternative conclusions instead. In this paper we introduce nonmonotonic reasoning and the attempts at formalizing it using nonmonotonic logics.
This is called default or nonmonotonic reasoning and cannot be formalized directly in pure fol in general. A nonmonotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. Component selection is a decisionmaking process which, we suggest, can be made more. Logic in nonmonotonic reasoning alexander bochman computer science department, holon institute of technology hit israel abstract we present a conceptual description of nonmonotonic formalisms as essentially twolayered reasoning systems consisting of a monotonic logical system, coupled with a mechanism of a reasoned choice of default. Theoretical foundations for nonmonotonic reasoning in expert. However, particularly in the last 20 years, the mathematical study of reasoning nonmonotonically has developed in parallel to, and largely separate from, research on monotonic logic. Default or nonmonotonic reasoning in the previous example we made an assumption in the absence of information to the contrary, and revised this assumption later when new knowledge became available. This reasoning is called nonmonotonic in contrast with the monotonicity of deductive logic, in which the addition of new axioms to a set of axioms can never decrease the set of theorems or facts. Introduction to non monotonic reasoning lsis pdf book. Component selection using nonmonotonic reasoning sciencedirect. To draw plausible conclusions it is necessary to make assumptions. Several paraphrases of this pattern are commonly accepted. Twentieth century logicians have primarilystudied monotonic logic. What links here related changes upload file special pages permanent link page information wikidata item cite this page.
Semantical approach to nonmonotonic reasoning basic idea. The formalism of this paper is substantially superseded by that of applications of circumscription to formalizing common sense published in 1986. We shall be placing special emphasis on some of the prominent approaches. As we shall see, a defaulttheory may have zero, one.
Monotonic reasoning can be defined in artificial intelligence. Nonmonotonic reasoning is a heuristic inference that can be invalidated or withdrawn by adding more evidence and data facts. Reasoning biases, non monotonic logics and belief revision by catarina dutilh novaes and herman veluwenkamp university of groningen abstract. Ta nonmonotonic a system which violates the monotonic property. A machine has the ability to learn itself by getting possible operations on it, so that when the terms are given to it. Practical non monotonic reasoning guido governatori knowledge techniques week 2012 nicta members nicta partners au from imagination to impact 2. Read online introduction to non monotonic reasoning lsis book pdf free download link book now.
The relation between argumentation in the form of a dialoguegame and classical monotonic logic has been studied by lorenz. This lecture is mainly based on the book nonmonotonic reasoning by grigoris antoniou nonmonotonic reasoning by g. It is job of belief revision system truth maintenance system tms to establish the state which would have occurred due to. Nonmonotonic reasoning and multiple belief revision. Nonmonotonic reasoning in interpretation robert van rooij and katrin schulz 1 introduction the original article of thomason pursues two goals. It is general in that it can accommodate different preference criteria, thus generating different non monotonic logics.
Dung i artificial intelligence 77 1995 3257 323 logic and ai. Notes on nonmonotonic autoepistemic propositional logic pdf, zeszyty naukowe. Nonmonotonic logic nml definition monotonic property for every theory t and t ta. A logic for default reasoning university of nottingham. This site is like a library, you could find million book here by using search box in the header.
Swiss computer scientists berzati offers a unifying framework not for engaging in it, but for analyzing it. Nonmonotonic logic nml motivation to define a strong yet flexible system to deal. Database theory was one of the earliest sources of such examples, especially as regards the closed world assumption. In this paper we discuss an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning which does allow the phase of knowledge acquisition to be accomplished in an incremental and modular way, but at the same time relies on a solid and widely acknowledged formal apparatus such as first order logic fol. It is also well known that nonmonotonic reasoning nmr is useful to model intelligent agents. In other words, nonmonotonic logics are devised to capture and represent defeasible inferences cf. Page 104 non monotonic reasoning is used when the facts of the case are likely to change after some time, e. Nonmonotonic reasoning is a particular kind of plausible reasoning. Laboratoire cnrs lsis 20102011a ai am indebted to laura giordano and alberto martelli for having provided me their course material. Incremental knowledge acquisition for nonmonotonic reasoning. If one of the goals of non monotonic logic is to provide a materially adequate account of defeasible reasoning, it is important to rely on a rich supply of examples to guide and hone intuitions. Fixing l be a propositional language over a set of propositional variables varprop.
In other words, non monotonic logics are devised to capture and represent defeasible inferences cf. Non monotonic reasoning has standard applications in areas such as diagnosis and logic programming. Nmr 2012 14th international workshop on nonmonotonic. Since the non monotonic logics are family of logics, i have changed the incipit of the article with the formal logic definition of a non monotonic logic i. Welcome to the 14th international workshop on nonmonotonic reasoning to be held in rome, italy, june 810, 2012 colocated with kr 2012, dl 2012, kibp 2012 cilc 2012 and aiia 2012 nmr is the premier forum for results in the area of nonmonotonic reasoning. Analysis of algorithms for monotonic and nonmonotonic reasoning. This report documents the program and the outcomes of dagstuhl perspectives workshop 19072. May 16, 2014 there is a pretty simple highlevel answer. This paper describes the results of a research project to examine the application of non monotonic reasoning to the problem of component selection for plant design. Insection4wedisplaythesystem,itsconsistencyandsoundness. Our main purpose is to abstract out and exhibit a modular and systematic method of representing nonmonotonic reasoning problems with our. Argumentation and nonmonotonic reasoning lia unibo. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so dont worry about it. However, the base logic does not need to be nonmonotonic.
Nonmonotonic logic nml motivation to define a strong yet flexible system to deal with situations of incomplete knowledge. And sometimes nonmonotonic logic models that better especially if we are trying to model knowledge representatio. Nonmonotonic spatial reasoning with answer set programming modulo theoriesy przemyslaw andrzej walega, carl schultz, mehul bhatt spatial reasoning. What is monotonic and nonmonotonic reasoning in artificial. Gabbay intuitionistic basis for non monotonic logic, proceedings of 6th conference of automated deduction, d. In the previous example we made an assumption in the absence of information to the contrary, and revised this assumption later when new knowledge became available. Non monotonic reasoning nonmonotonic reasoning deals with the.
We usually use logic to model stuff from our world and to derive conclusions about it. We shall also give hints on potential future directions and emphasize that more theoretical. Non monotonic reasoning in interpretation robert van rooij and katrin schulz 1 introduction the original article of thomason pursues two goals. Nonmonotonic reasoning this is a practical problem for development of expert system due to revising a conclusion belief revision, other conclusions may also depend on it, and this may set off a chain reaction. Despite the difference in motivation and technical construction there are strong similarities between these logics which are confirmed when they are finally shown to have a common basis. The application areas include diagnosis of hardware systems and even program debugging. And sometimes non monotonic logic models that better especially if we are trying to model knowledge representatio. Analysis of algorithms for monotonic and nonmonotonic. Nonmonotonic reasoning, nonmonotonic logics and reasoning.
In section 2 we discuss the case of intentional reasoning as nonmonotonic reasoningand we expose anonmonotonic framework for intentional reasoning insection3. The set of conclusions thus does not grow monotonically with the given information. If you have a disability and are having trouble accessing information on this website or need materials in an alternate format, contact web. Circumscription a form of nonmonotonic reasoning john mccarthy abstract humans and intelligent computer programs must often jump to the conclusion that the objects they can determine to have certain properties or relations are the only objects that do. Reformulating nonmonotonic theories for inference and.
Since the nonmonotonic logics are family of logics, i have changed the incipit of the article with the formal logic definition of a nonmonotonic logic i. Nonmonotonic reasoning attempts to formalize reasoning with ab. A non monotonic logic is a formal logic whose consequence relation is not monotonic. Nerode classical logic is the study of safe formal reasoning. The original article of thomason pursues two goals. This volume contains the papers that will be presented at the first international workshop on argumentation and nonmonotonic reasoning argnmr 2007 on may 14, 2007 in tempe, arizona, us. The term nonmonotonic logic in short, nml covers a family of formal frameworks devised to capture and represent defeasible inference. The system associates facts asserted with the rules and facts used to justify them and as those facts change updates the dependent knowledge as well. Circumscription formalizes such conjectural reasoning. The present version has an addendum that was not in the published paper.
It has recently been shown that glukg logic can be used to express interesting nonmonotonic semantics 16. Explanations are written into an xml file, which is parsed by a visualization. Nonmonotonic reasoning provides formal methods that enable intelligent systems to operate adequately when faced with incomplete or changing information. Nonmonotonic logical reasoning guiding deep learning for. We give theorems that localize retraction and thus show how to make belief revision be partial in the sense that, for a given update, the arena of potential retraction is known to be restricted to a particular part of the previous database. Nonmonotonic spatial reasoning with answer set programming modulo theories volume 17 issue 2 przemyslaw andrzej walega, carl schultz.
Marek and others published nonmonotonic reasoning find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Non monotonic reasoning attempts to formalize reasoning with ab kr incomplete information by classical logic systems. Cs607 artificial intelligence solved subjective from. Western philosophers developed classical logic over a period of thirtythree centuries after its introduction in the form of syllogistic by aristotle 1 in the third century b. For example, imagine you have invited someone to your house for dinner. Toulmin 59 has given an excellent philosophical account of the general structure of arguments. Konolige chapters nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision in the handbook of knowledge representation. Adding knowledge in monotonic reasoning does not reduce the set of prepositions that arise. Nonmonotonic logic stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of.593 594 1583 1195 1187 478 1590 190 630 1421 449 1137 129 1077 648 1532 1438 552 114 1457 1498 1442 50 6 77 1493 412 891 833 785